In this chapter, we will create a new basic Laravel app. It will get some new functionality with each new chapter, eventually resembling the real-life app that incorporates the best practices for organizing applications and CI/CD with werf.

Preparing the environment

Prepare the environment using the instructions provided in the “Preparing the environment” chapter (if you have not done this already).

Please, refer to these helpful resources if the environment has stopped working or instructions in this chapter don’t work:

Is Docker running?

Let’s launch Docker Desktop. It takes some time for this application to start Docker. If there are no errors during the startup process, check that Docker is running and is properly configured:

docker run hello-world

You will see the following output if the command completes successfully:

Unable to find image 'hello-world:latest' locally
latest: Pulling from library/hello-world
b8dfde127a29: Pull complete
Digest: sha256:9f6ad537c5132bcce57f7a0a20e317228d382c3cd61edae14650eec68b2b345c
Status: Downloaded newer image for hello-world:latest

Hello from Docker!
This message shows that your installation appears to be working correctly.

Should you have any problems, please refer to the Docker documentation.

Let’s launch the Docker Desktop application. It takes some time for the application to start Docker. If there are no errors during the startup process, then check that Docker is running and is properly configured:

docker run hello-world

You will see the following output if the command completes successfully:

Unable to find image 'hello-world:latest' locally
latest: Pulling from library/hello-world
b8dfde127a29: Pull complete
Digest: sha256:9f6ad537c5132bcce57f7a0a20e317228d382c3cd61edae14650eec68b2b345c
Status: Downloaded newer image for hello-world:latest

Hello from Docker!
This message shows that your installation appears to be working correctly.

Should you have any problems, please refer to the Docker documentation.

Start Docker:

sudo systemctl restart docker

Make sure that Docker is running:

sudo systemctl status docker

If the Docker start is successful, you will see the following output:

● docker.service - Docker Application Container Engine
     Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/docker.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
     Active: active (running) since Thu 2021-06-24 13:05:17 MSK; 13s ago
TriggeredBy: ● docker.socket
       Docs: https://docs.docker.com
   Main PID: 2013888 (dockerd)
      Tasks: 36
     Memory: 100.3M
     CGroup: /system.slice/docker.service
             └─2013888 /usr/bin/dockerd -H fd:// --containerd=/run/containerd/containerd.sock

dockerd[2013888]: time="2021-06-24T13:05:16.936197880+03:00" level=warning msg="Your kernel does not support CPU realtime scheduler"
dockerd[2013888]: time="2021-06-24T13:05:16.936219851+03:00" level=warning msg="Your kernel does not support cgroup blkio weight"
dockerd[2013888]: time="2021-06-24T13:05:16.936224976+03:00" level=warning msg="Your kernel does not support cgroup blkio weight_device"
dockerd[2013888]: time="2021-06-24T13:05:16.936311001+03:00" level=info msg="Loading containers: start."
dockerd[2013888]: time="2021-06-24T13:05:17.119938367+03:00" level=info msg="Loading containers: done."
dockerd[2013888]: time="2021-06-24T13:05:17.134054120+03:00" level=info msg="Daemon has completed initialization"
systemd[1]: Started Docker Application Container Engine.
dockerd[2013888]: time="2021-06-24T13:05:17.148493957+03:00" level=info msg="API listen on /run/docker.sock"

Now let’s check if Docker is available and its configuration is correct:

docker run hello-world

You will see the following output if the command completes successfully:

Unable to find image 'hello-world:latest' locally
latest: Pulling from library/hello-world
b8dfde127a29: Pull complete
Digest: sha256:9f6ad537c5132bcce57f7a0a20e317228d382c3cd61edae14650eec68b2b345c
Status: Downloaded newer image for hello-world:latest

Hello from Docker!
This message shows that your installation appears to be working correctly.

Should you have any problems, please refer to the Docker documentation.

Have you restarted the computer after setting up the environment?

Let’s start the minikube cluster we have already configured in the “Preparing the environment” chapter:

minikube start

Set the default Namespace so that you don’t have to specify it every time you invoke kubectl:

kubectl config set-context minikube --namespace=werf-guide-app

You will see the following output if the command completes successfully:

😄  minikube v1.20.0 on Ubuntu 20.04
✨  Using the docker driver based on existing profile
👍  Starting control plane node minikube in cluster minikube
🚜  Pulling base image ...
🎉  minikube 1.21.0 is available! Download it: https://github.com/kubernetes/minikube/releases/tag/v1.21.0
💡  To disable this notice, run: 'minikube config set WantUpdateNotification false'

🔄  Restarting existing docker container for "minikube" ...
🐳  Preparing Kubernetes v1.20.2 on Docker 20.10.6 ...
🔎  Verifying Kubernetes components...
    ▪ Using image gcr.io/google_containers/kube-registry-proxy:0.4
    ▪ Using image k8s.gcr.io/ingress-nginx/controller:v0.44.0
    ▪ Using image registry:2.7.1
    ▪ Using image docker.io/jettech/kube-webhook-certgen:v1.5.1
    ▪ Using image docker.io/jettech/kube-webhook-certgen:v1.5.1
    ▪ Using image gcr.io/k8s-minikube/storage-provisioner:v5
🔎  Verifying registry addon...
🔎  Verifying ingress addon...
🌟  Enabled addons: storage-provisioner, registry, default-storageclass, ingress
🏄  Done! kubectl is now configured to use "minikube" cluster and "werf-guide-app" namespace by default

Make sure that the command output contains the following line:

Restarting existing docker container for "minikube"

Its absence means that a new minikube cluster was created instead of using the old one. In this case, repeat all the steps required to install the environment using minikube.

Now run the command in the background PowerShell terminal (do not close its window):

minikube tunnel --cleanup=true

Let’s start the minikube cluster we have already configured in the “Preparing the environment” chapter:

minikube start --namespace werf-guide-app

Set the default Namespace so that you don’t have to specify it every time you invoke kubectl:

kubectl config set-context minikube --namespace=werf-guide-app

You will see the following output if the command completes successfully:

😄  minikube v1.20.0 on Ubuntu 20.04
✨  Using the docker driver based on existing profile
👍  Starting control plane node minikube in cluster minikube
🚜  Pulling base image ...
🎉  minikube 1.21.0 is available! Download it: https://github.com/kubernetes/minikube/releases/tag/v1.21.0
💡  To disable this notice, run: 'minikube config set WantUpdateNotification false'

🔄  Restarting existing docker container for "minikube" ...
🐳  Preparing Kubernetes v1.20.2 on Docker 20.10.6 ...
🔎  Verifying Kubernetes components...
    ▪ Using image gcr.io/google_containers/kube-registry-proxy:0.4
    ▪ Using image k8s.gcr.io/ingress-nginx/controller:v0.44.0
    ▪ Using image registry:2.7.1
    ▪ Using image docker.io/jettech/kube-webhook-certgen:v1.5.1
    ▪ Using image docker.io/jettech/kube-webhook-certgen:v1.5.1
    ▪ Using image gcr.io/k8s-minikube/storage-provisioner:v5
🔎  Verifying registry addon...
🔎  Verifying ingress addon...
🌟  Enabled addons: storage-provisioner, registry, default-storageclass, ingress
🏄  Done! kubectl is now configured to use "minikube" cluster and "werf-guide-app" namespace by default

Make sure that the command output contains the following line:

Restarting existing docker container for "minikube"

Its absence means that a new minikube cluster was created instead of using the old one. In this case, repeat all the steps required to install the environment from scratch using minikube.

Did you accidentally delete the application's Namespace?

If you have inadvertently deleted Namespace of the application, you must run the following commands to proceed with the guide:

kubectl create namespace werf-guide-app
kubectl create secret docker-registry registrysecret \
  --docker-server='https://index.docker.io/v1/' \
  --docker-username='<Docker Hub username>' \
  --docker-password='<Docker Hub password>'

You will see the following output if the command completes successfully:

namespace/werf-guide-app created
secret/registrysecret created
Nothing helps; the environment or instructions keep failing.

If nothing worked, repeat all the steps described in the “Preparing the environment” chapter and create a new environment from scratch. If creating an environment from scratch did not help either, please, tell us about your problem in our Telegram chat or create an issue on GitHub. We will be happy to help you!

Preparing the repository

Update the existing repository containing the application:

Run the following commands in PowerShell:

cd ~/werf-guide/app

# To see what changes we will make later in this chapter, let's replace all the application files
# in the repository with new, modified files containing the changes described below.
git rm -r .
cp -Recurse -Force ~/werf-guide/guides/examples/laravel/010_basic_app/* .
git add .
git commit -m WIP
What changes we will make
# Enter the command below to show the files we are going to change.
git show --stat
# Enter the command below to show the changes that will be made.
git show

Run the following commands in Bash:

cd ~/werf-guide/app

# To see what changes we will make later in this chapter, let's replace all the application files
# in the repository with new, modified files containing the changes described below.
git rm -r .
cp -rf ~/werf-guide/guides/examples/laravel/010_basic_app/. .
git add .
git commit -m WIP
What changes we will make
# Enter the command below to show files we are going to change.
git show --stat
# Enter the command below to show the changes that will be made.
git show

Doesn’t work? Try the instructions on the “I am just starting from this chapter” tab above.

Prepare a new repository with the application:

Run the following commands in PowerShell:

# Clone the example repository to ~/werf-guide/guides (if you have not cloned it yet).
if (-not (Test-Path ~/werf-guide/guides)) {
  git clone https://github.com/werf/werf-guides $env:HOMEPATH/werf-guide/guides
}

# Copy the (unchanged) application files to ~/werf-guide/app.
rm -Recurse -Force ~/werf-guide/app
cp -Recurse -Force ~/werf-guide/guides/examples/basic/004_modify_app ~/werf-guide/app

# Make the ~/werf-guide/app directory a git repository.
cd ~/werf-guide/app
git init
git add .
git commit -m initial

# To see what changes we will make later in this chapter, let's replace all the application files
# in the repository with new, modified files containing the changes described below.
git rm -r .
cp -Recurse -Force ~/werf-guide/guides/examples/laravel/010_basic_app/* .
git add .
git commit -m WIP
What changes we will make
# Enter the command below to show the files we are going to change.
git show --stat
# Enter the command below to show the changes that will be made.
git show

Run the following commands in Bash:

# Clone the example repository to ~/werf-guide/guides (if you have not cloned it yet).
test -e ~/werf-guide/guides || git clone https://github.com/werf/werf-guides ~/werf-guide/guides

# Copy the (unchanged) application files to ~/werf-guide/app.
rm -rf ~/werf-guide/app
cp -rf ~/werf-guide/guides/examples/basic/004_modify_app ~/werf-guide/app

# Make the ~/werf-guide/app directory a git repository.
cd ~/werf-guide/app
git init
git add .
git commit -m initial

# To see what changes we will make later in this chapter, let's replace all the application files
# in the repository with new, modified files containing the changes described below.
git rm -r .
cp -rf ~/werf-guide/guides/examples/laravel/010_basic_app/. .
git add .
git commit -m WIP
What changes we will make
# Enter the command below to show files we are going to change.
git show --stat
# Enter the command below to show the changes that will be made.
git show

A new Laravel application

In this chapter, we will use a new basic Laravel application with the same feature set as the application from the previous section.

We got it like this - generated the directory structure for our Laravel application by the command:

docker run --rm \
    -v $(pwd):/opt \
    -w /opt \
    laravelsail/php80-composer:latest \
    bash -c "composer create-project laravel/laravel ."

Please Note! The commands in the current section are for illustrative purposes only. They show how a basic application was generated. Only the commands in the “Deploying a new application” section are intended to be executed.

This application doesn’t have any functionality that is not needed at this stage. The only thing left is the configuration for the production environment.

Then, a new /ping route has been added to the API:

<?php

use App\Http\Controllers\PingController;
use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Route;

/*
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Web Routes
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|
| Here is where you can register web routes for your application. These
| routes are loaded by the RouteServiceProvider within a group which
| contains the "web" middleware group. Now create something great!
|
*/

Route::get('/ping', [PingController::class, 'ping']);
<?php use App\Http\Controllers\PingController; use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Route; /* |-------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Web Routes |-------------------------------------------------------------------------- | | Here is where you can register web routes for your application. These | routes are loaded by the RouteServiceProvider within a group which | contains the "web" middleware group. Now create something great! | */ Route::get('/ping', [PingController::class, 'ping']);

The ping method of the standard controller will handle this route (and return the pong string):

<?php

namespace App\Http\Controllers;

use Illuminate\Routing\Controller;
use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Log;

class PingController extends Controller
{
    public function ping(): string
    {
        Log::info('Ping request.');
        return 'pong';
    }
}
<?php namespace App\Http\Controllers; use Illuminate\Routing\Controller; use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Log; class PingController extends Controller { public function ping(): string { Log::info('Ping request.'); return 'pong'; } }

As for the building and CI/CD, the most significant changes affected the image build process:

FROM php:8.0-fpm-alpine as backend
WORKDIR /app

RUN set -x \
    && apk add --no-cache \
        icu-libs \
        bash \
    && apk add --no-cache --virtual .build-deps \
        icu-dev \
        autoconf \
        openssl \
        make \
        g++ \
    && docker-php-ext-install -j$(nproc) \
        sockets \
        opcache \
        pcntl \
        intl \
        1>/dev/null \
    && docker-php-source delete \
    && apk del .build-deps \
    && php -r "readfile('http://getcomposer.org/installer');" | php -- --install-dir=/usr/bin/ --filename=composer

COPY ./composer.* /app/
RUN composer install -n --no-dev --no-cache --no-ansi --no-autoloader --no-scripts --prefer-dist

COPY --chown=www-data:www-data . /app/
RUN composer dump-autoload -n --optimize

COPY .werf/zzz-php-fpm-config.conf /usr/local/etc/php-fpm.d/zzz-php-fpm-config.conf

EXPOSE 9000

#############################################################################

FROM nginx:stable-alpine as frontend
WORKDIR /www

COPY --from=backend /app/public /www

COPY .werf/nginx.conf /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

EXPOSE 8080
FROM php:8.0-fpm-alpine as backend WORKDIR /app RUN set -x \ && apk add --no-cache \ icu-libs \ bash \ && apk add --no-cache --virtual .build-deps \ icu-dev \ autoconf \ openssl \ make \ g++ \ && docker-php-ext-install -j$(nproc) \ sockets \ opcache \ pcntl \ intl \ 1>/dev/null \ && docker-php-source delete \ && apk del .build-deps \ && php -r "readfile('http://getcomposer.org/installer');" | php -- --install-dir=/usr/bin/ --filename=composer COPY ./composer.* /app/ RUN composer install -n --no-dev --no-cache --no-ansi --no-autoloader --no-scripts --prefer-dist COPY --chown=www-data:www-data . /app/ RUN composer dump-autoload -n --optimize COPY .werf/zzz-php-fpm-config.conf /usr/local/etc/php-fpm.d/zzz-php-fpm-config.conf EXPOSE 9000 ############################################################################# FROM nginx:stable-alpine as frontend WORKDIR /www COPY --from=backend /app/public /www COPY .werf/nginx.conf /etc/nginx/nginx.conf EXPOSE 8080

… while CI/CD changes were minimal. For example, here is the Deployment of the new application:

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: werf-guide-app
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: werf-guide-app
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: werf-guide-app
    spec:
      imagePullSecrets:
        - name: registrysecret
      volumes:
        - name: run-php
          emptyDir: {}
      containers:
        - name: backend
          image: {{ .Values.werf.image.backend }}
          env:
            - name: APP_KEY
              value: base64:GcPVmSxMZwsOJtNOJ9eVNNeU6B5buHuln93+w0TSvfE=
          volumeMounts:
            - mountPath: /var/run/php
              name: run-php
        - name: frontend
          image: {{ .Values.werf.image.frontend }}
          ports:
            - containerPort: 8080
              name: http
          volumeMounts:
            - mountPath: /var/run/php
              name: run-php
apiVersion: apps/v1 kind: Deployment metadata: name: werf-guide-app spec: replicas: 1 selector: matchLabels: app: werf-guide-app template: metadata: labels: app: werf-guide-app spec: imagePullSecrets: - name: registrysecret volumes: - name: run-php emptyDir: {} containers: - name: backend image: {{ .Values.werf.image.backend }} env: - name: APP_KEY value: base64:GcPVmSxMZwsOJtNOJ9eVNNeU6B5buHuln93+w0TSvfE= volumeMounts: - mountPath: /var/run/php name: run-php - name: frontend image: {{ .Values.werf.image.frontend }} ports: - containerPort: 8080 name: http volumeMounts: - mountPath: /var/run/php name: run-php

Our current application is stateless and does not need a database to run. We will show you how to turn it into a stateful application and deploy a dedicated database in the following chapters.

Deploying a new application

Let’s check if the new application is running fine by deploying it to the Kubernetes cluster:

werf converge --repo <DOCKER HUB USERNAME>/werf-guide-app

You should see the following output:

┌ ⛵ image backend
│ ┌ Building stage backend/dockerfile
│ │ backend/dockerfile  Sending build context to Docker daemon  485.4kB
│ │ backend/dockerfile  Step 1/18 : FROM php:8.0-fpm-alpine as backend
│ │ backend/dockerfile   ---> 52c511f481c5
...
│ │ backend/dockerfile  Successfully built 75a23bca33d3
│ │ backend/dockerfile  Successfully tagged 80b5cdbb-4b00-41b2-8aa9-65fcfdd2f88a:latest
│ ├ Info
│ │      name: .../werf-guide-app:4e2d1c37b299cc5b21e71eb5f0a296e8c0fc917adba797d20dfa46fb-1633609892956
│ │        id: 75a23bca33d3
│ │   created: 2021-10-07 15:36:18 +0300 MSK
│ │      size: 48.8 MiB
│ └ Building stage backend/dockerfile (15.94 seconds)
└ ⛵ image backend (22.00 seconds)

┌ ⛵ image frontend
│ ┌ Building stage frontend/dockerfile
│ │ frontend/dockerfile  Sending build context to Docker daemon  485.4kB
│ │ frontend/dockerfile  Step 1/23 : FROM php:8.0-fpm-alpine as backend
│ │ frontend/dockerfile   ---> 52c511f481c5
...
│ │ frontend/dockerfile  Successfully built 8f4a95930a1d
│ │ frontend/dockerfile  Successfully tagged 19ddb0ae-a79a-4496-a920-1e1e44900b09:latest
│ ├ Info
│ │      name: .../werf-guide-app:a16f913d838b6e697159b09acd22af3f798404c050af61792946733c-1633609892635
│ │        id: 8f4a95930a1d
│ │   created: 2021-10-07 15:36:18 +0300 MSK
│ │      size: 9.4 MiB
│ └ Building stage frontend/dockerfile (12.62 seconds)
└ ⛵ image frontend (18.51 seconds)

┌ Waiting for release resources to become ready
│ ┌ Status progress
│ │ DEPLOYMENT                                                                                      REPLICAS          AVAILABLE           UP-TO-DATE
│ │ werf-guide-app                                                                                  2->1/1            1                   1
│ │ │   POD                                 READY        RESTARTS          STATUS
│ │ ├── guide-app-5478b4cfbb-cpkf8          2/2          0                 ContainerCreating ->
│ │ │                                                                      Running
│ │ └── guide-app-59c465b577-5xd44          2/2          0                 Running -> Terminating
│ └ Status progress
└ Waiting for release resources to become ready (8.55 seconds)

Release "werf-guide-app" has been upgraded. Happy Helming!
NAME: werf-guide-app
LAST DEPLOYED: Thu Oct  7 15:36:36 2021
NAMESPACE: werf-guide-app
STATUS: deployed
REVISION: 2
TEST SUITE: None
Running time 39.04 seconds

Let’s check whether our application works:

curl http://werf-guide-app/ping

You should see the following response:

pong