Task Overview

Often a single application consists of several microservices. It can be microservices built using different technologies and programming languages. E.g., a Yii application which has logic application and worker application. The common practice is to place Dockerfiles into separate directories. So, with Dockerfile, you can’t describe all components of the application in one file. As you need to describe image configuration in separate files, you can’t share a part of configuration between images.

Werf allows describing all images of a project in a one config. This approach gives you more convenience.

In this article, we will build an example application — AtSea Shop, to demonstrate how to describe multiple images in a one config.

Requirements

Select werf version

This command should be run prior running any werf command in your shell session:

source <(multiwerf use 1.0 beta)

Building the application

The example application is the AtSea Shop Demonstration Application from the Official Docker Samples repository. The application is a prototype of a small shop application consisting of several components.

It’s frontend written in React and backend written in Java Spring Boot. There will be nginx reverse proxy and payment gateway added in the project to make it more real.

Application components

Backend

It is the app image. The backend container handles HTTP requests from the frontend container. The source code of the application is in the /app directory. It consists of Java application and ReactJS application. To build the backend image there are two artifact images (read more about artifacts here) - storefront and appserver.

Image of the backend base on the official java image. It uses files from artifacts and doesn’t need any steps for downloading packages or building.

image: app
from: java:8-jdk-alpine
docker:
  ENTRYPOINT: ["java", "-jar", "/app/AtSea-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT.jar"]
  CMD: ["--spring.profiles.active=postgres"]
shell:
  beforeInstall:
  - mkdir /app
  - adduser -Dh /home/gordon gordon
import:
- artifact: storefront
  add: /usr/src/atsea/app/react-app/build
  to: /static
  after: install
- artifact: appserver
  add: /usr/src/atsea/target/AtSea-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT.jar
  to: /app
  after: install

Storefront artifact

Builds assets. After building werf imports assets into the /static directory of the app image. To increase the efficiency of the building storefront image, build instructions divided into two stages — install and setup.

artifact: storefront
from: node:latest
git:
- add: /app/react-app
  to: /usr/src/atsea/app/react-app
  stageDependencies:
    install:
    - package.json
    setup:
    - src
    - public
shell:
  install:
  - cd /usr/src/atsea/app/react-app
  - npm install
  setup:
  - cd /usr/src/atsea/app/react-app
  - npm run build

Appserver artifact

Builds a Java code. Werf imports the resulting jarfile AtSea-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT.jar into the /app directory of the app image. To increase the efficiency of the building appserver image, build instructions divided into two stages — install and setup. Also, the /usr/share/maven/ref/repository directory mounts with the build_dir directives to allow some caching (read more about mount directives here).

artifact: appserver
from: maven:latest
mount:
- from: build_dir
  to: /usr/share/maven/ref/repository
git:
- add: /app
  to: /usr/src/atsea
  stageDependencies:
    install:
    - pom.xml
    setup:
    - src
shell:
  install:
  - cd /usr/src/atsea
  - mvn -B -f pom.xml -s /usr/share/maven/ref/settings-docker.xml dependency:go-offline
  setup:
  - cd /usr/src/atsea
  - mvn -B -s /usr/share/maven/ref/settings-docker.xml package -DskipTests

Frontend

It is the reverse_proxy image. This image base on the official image of the NGINX server. It acts as a frontend and is configured as a reverse proxy. The frontend container handles all incoming traffic, cache it and pass requests to the backend container.

image: reverse_proxy
from: nginx:alpine
ansible:
  install:
  - name: "Copy nginx.conf"
    copy:
      content: |
{{ .Files.Get "reverse_proxy/nginx.conf" | indent 8 }}
      dest: /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
  - name: "Copy SSL certificates"
    file:
      path: /run/secrets
      state: directory
      owner: nginx
  - copy:
      content: |
{{ .Files.Get "reverse_proxy/certs/revprox_cert" | indent 8 }}
      dest: /run/secrets/revprox_cert
  - copy:
      content: |
{{ .Files.Get "reverse_proxy/certs/revprox_key" | indent 8 }}
      dest: /run/secrets/revprox_key

Database

It is the database image. This image base on the official image of the PostgreSQL server. Werf adds configs and SQL file for bootstrap in this image. The backend container uses the database to store its data.

image: database
from: postgres:11
docker:
  ENV:
    POSTGRES_USER: gordonuser
    POSTGRES_DB: atsea
ansible:
  install:
  - raw: mkdir -p /images/
  - name: "Copy DB configs"
    copy:
      content: |
{{ .Files.Get "database/pg_hba.conf" | indent 8 }}
      dest: /usr/share/postgresql/11/pg_hba.conf
  - copy:
      content: |
{{ .Files.Get "database/postgresql.conf" | indent 8 }}
      dest:  /usr/share/postgresql/11/postgresql.conf
git:
- add: /database/docker-entrypoint-initdb.d/
  to:  /docker-entrypoint-initdb.d/

Payment gateway

It is the payment_gw image. This image is an example of the payment gateway application. It does nothing except infinitely writes messages to stdout. Payment gateway acts as another component of the application.

image: payment_gw
from: alpine
docker:
  CMD: ["/home/payment/process.sh"]
ansible:
  beforeInstall:
  - name: "Create payment user"
    user:
      name: payment
      comment: "Payment user"
      shell: /bin/sh
      home: /home/payment
  - file:
      path: /run/secrets
      state: directory
      owner: payment
  - copy:
      content: |
        production
      dest: /run/secrets/payment_token
git:
- add: /payment_gateway/process.sh
  to: /home/payment/process.sh
  owner: payment

Step 1: Clone the application repository

Clone the AtSea Shop repository:

git clone https://github.com/dockersamples/atsea-sample-shop-app.git

Step 2: Create a config

To build an application with all of its components create the following werf.yaml in the root folder of the repository:

The complete werf.yaml file...
project: atsea-shop
configVersion: 1
---

artifact: storefront
from: node:latest
git:
- add: /app/react-app
  to: /usr/src/atsea/app/react-app
  stageDependencies:
    install:
    - package.json
    setup:
    - src
    - public
shell:
  install:
  - cd /usr/src/atsea/app/react-app
  - npm install
  setup:
  - cd /usr/src/atsea/app/react-app
  - npm run build
---
artifact: appserver
from: maven:latest
mount:
- from: build_dir
  to: /usr/share/maven/ref/repository
git:
- add: /app
  to: /usr/src/atsea
  stageDependencies:
    install:
    - pom.xml
    setup:
    - src
shell:
  install:
  - cd /usr/src/atsea
  - mvn -B -f pom.xml -s /usr/share/maven/ref/settings-docker.xml dependency:go-offline
  setup:
  - cd /usr/src/atsea
  - mvn -B -s /usr/share/maven/ref/settings-docker.xml package -DskipTests
---
image: app
from: java:8-jdk-alpine
docker:
  ENTRYPOINT: ["java", "-jar", "/app/AtSea-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT.jar"]
  CMD: ["--spring.profiles.active=postgres"]
shell:
  beforeInstall:
  - mkdir /app
  - adduser -Dh /home/gordon gordon
import:
- artifact: storefront
  add: /usr/src/atsea/app/react-app/build
  to: /static
  after: install
- artifact: appserver
  add: /usr/src/atsea/target/AtSea-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT.jar
  to: /app
  after: install
---
image: reverse_proxy
from: nginx:alpine
ansible:
  install:
  - name: "Copy nginx.conf"
    copy:
      content: |
{{ .Files.Get "reverse_proxy/nginx.conf" | indent 8 }}
      dest: /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
  - name: "Copy SSL certificates"
    file:
      path: /run/secrets
      state: directory
      owner: nginx
  - copy:
      content: |
{{ .Files.Get "reverse_proxy/certs/revprox_cert" | indent 8 }}
      dest: /run/secrets/revprox_cert
  - copy:
      content: |
{{ .Files.Get "reverse_proxy/certs/revprox_key" | indent 8 }}
      dest: /run/secrets/revprox_key
---
image: database
from: postgres:11
docker:
  ENV:
    POSTGRES_USER: gordonuser
    POSTGRES_DB: atsea
ansible:
  install:
  - raw: mkdir -p /images/
  - name: "Copy DB configs"
    copy:
      content: |
{{ .Files.Get "database/pg_hba.conf" | indent 8 }}
      dest: /usr/share/postgresql/11/pg_hba.conf
  - copy:
      content: |
{{ .Files.Get "database/postgresql.conf" | indent 8 }}
      dest:  /usr/share/postgresql/11/postgresql.conf
git:
- add: /database/docker-entrypoint-initdb.d/
  to:  /docker-entrypoint-initdb.d/
---
image: payment_gw
from: alpine
docker:
  CMD: ["/home/payment/process.sh"]
ansible:
  beforeInstall:
  - name: "Install shadow utils"
    package:
      name: shadow
      state: present
  - name: "Create payment user"
    user:
      name: payment
      comment: "Payment user"
      shell: /bin/sh
      home: /home/payment
  - file:
      path: /run/secrets
      state: directory
      owner: payment
  - copy:
      content: |
        production
      dest: /run/secrets/payment_token
git:
- add: /payment_gateway/process.sh
  to: /home/payment/process.sh
  owner: payment

Step 3: Create SSL certificates

The NGINX in the reverse_proxy image listen on SSL ports and need a key and certificate.

Execute the following command in the root folder of the project to create them:

mkdir -p reverse_proxy/certs && openssl req -newkey rsa:4096 -nodes -subj "/CN=atseashop.com;" -sha256 -keyout reverse_proxy/certs/revprox_key -x509 -days 365 -out reverse_proxy/certs/revprox_cert

Step 4: Build images

Execute the following command in the root folder of the project to build all images:

werf build --stages-storage :local

Step 5: Modify /etc/hosts file

To have an ability to open the example by the http://atseashop.com URL, add the atseashop.com name pointing to the address of your local interface into your /etc/hosts file. E.g.:

sudo sed -ri 's/^(127.0.0.1)(\s)+/\1\2atseashop.com /' /etc/hosts

Step 6: Run the application

To run the application images, execute the following commands from the root folder of the project:

werf run --stages-storage :local --docker-options="-d --name payment_gw" payment_gw  &&
werf run --stages-storage :local --docker-options="-d --name database -p 5432:5432" database &&
werf run --stages-storage :local --docker-options="-d --name app -p 8080:8080 --link database:database" app &&
werf run --stages-storage :local --docker-options="-d --name reverse_proxy -p 80:80 -p 443:443 --link app:appserver" reverse_proxy

Check that all containers are running, by executing:

docker ps

You should see running containers with names: reverse_proxy, app, database, payment_gw and registry.

Wait for about 30 seconds or a bit more for all the containers to be ready, then open the atseashop.com in your browser. You will be redirected by NGINX to https://atseashop.com and you will get a warning message from your browser about the security of the connection, because there is a self-signed certificate used in the example. You need to add an exception to open the https://atseashop.com page.

Stopping the application

To stop application containers execute the following command:

docker stop reverse_proxy app database payment_gw

Conclusions

We’ve described all project images in a one config.

The example above shows the benefits:

  • If your project has similar images, you can share some piece of images by mounting their folder with the build_dir directive (read more about mounts here).
  • You can share artifacts between images in single config.
  • Common templates can be used in single config to describe configuration of multiple images.